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Antalya City

The city of Antalya stretches along the bay bearing its name, and is built at 39 meters altitude on a rocky coastline. One is immediately struck by the Taurus mountains rising to 3086 meters above this coastline, intersperesed withvalleys of varying sizes. Land and sea everywhere meet the beaches stretching for miles or the steep cliffs. The Taurus mountains against the blue backdrop of the sky, the precipices and especially the caves close to the sea add another dimension to the beauty of the region.

 

Small and large streams emerging from the west side of the Taurus water the plains on their journey to the Mediterranean. This translucent running water, cascading into the sea at points along the coast, is another attractive sight. The plant life of Antalya is extremely varied. Every kind of tropical plant can be found along the coast. Visitors to Antalya are struck by the size attained by the different species of cactus. When you reach the foothills of the Taurus, you will see they are covered in the typical Mediterranean maquis, while the forests are full of thriving oaks and pine trees. The coton and sesame plantations and citrus and banana groves of the plains have a beauty of their own.

In Antalya the four seasons only appear on the calendar, as there is no real winter here, so much so that when in 1985 for the first time in 60 years snow fell, it was front page news.

Evidence of human habitation dating back over 200 000 years has been discovered in the Carain caves 30 km to the north of Antalya city. Other finds dating back to Neolithic times and more recent periods show that the area has been populated by various ancient civilisations throughout the ages.

Records from the Hittite period (when the first recorded political union of Anatolian cities was set up calling itself the Lycian league) refer to the area as the Lands of Arzawa and document the lively interaction going on between provinces in 1700 BC.

Historical records document how cities developed independantly, how the area as a whole was called Pamphilia and how a federation of cities was set up in the province. There is also a record of the migration of the Akha clan to the area after the Trojan war.

The reign of the kingdom of Lydia in west Anatolia came to an end in 560 BC after it was defeated by the Persians during the battle of Sardis in 546 BC.From 334 BC until his death Alexander the Great conquered the cities of the area one by one – leaving out Termessos and Silion. With the defeat of the Seleucid army at Apamaea began the reign of the kingdon of Pergamom. In 150 BC Attalos II, king of Pergamom, founded the city of Attala?a (present day Antalya) to base his powerful naval fleet. When Attalos III, the last king of Pergamom, died in 133 BC he left his kingdom to the Romans. The Roman and subsequent Byzantine Empires ruled the area for the next 13 centuries. In 1207 A.D. the Selchuk Turks conquered Antalya and then Alanya in 1220 A.D.This marked the end of Roman/Byzantine rule. Ottoman rule began in 1391. The brief occupation of the area by the Italians came to an abrupt end after the First World War with the founding of the Turkish Republic in 1923. The area is now registered as a province of the Republic of Turkey

 

ANTALYA – ETNOGRAPHICAL BACKGROUND

Thanks to its historical background, Antalya region enjoys a rich culture and ethnography. In addition to characteristics of settled cultures , the local people also synthesized the characteristics of the yoruk nomadic culture, thus establishing a unique culture of the town.

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The migration of the local people from the shore towards the uplands on Taurus mountains because of the excessive temperature during summer season created a need as such forcing them to produce the needs of the yoruk culture in addition to the products grown on the coast. These people owning herds of sheep and goats before everyhing else, first produced felt tents from the wool of animal produce such as milk, butter, cheese. They dried various fruits in the mountains and made jams and pickled with them, made molasses from grapes. 40 different jams are made in the region including bitter orange, bergamot, apricot and many more. besides the livestock farming, dairy produce and hunting the local people migrating to the uplands of Taurus mountains also valued handicraft and mainly wove the famous Dosemealti carpets of the area. All these authentic local products are sold in restored commercial buildings and souvenir shops in Antalya.

ANTALYA – KALEICI YACHT MARINA

The Kaleici yacht marina whose ownership belongs to the department of treasury was rented to Antalya financial directorate on 05.12.2001 for a period of 10 years. The yacht marina that is already affiliated with Antalya Metropolitan municipality Operations and Participation Bureau Directorate is being governed by the yacht marina operation manager ship. The company is rendering its services in the frame work of the yacht tourism regulation which has been arranged by article 37 of paragraph A and item 4 of Tourism incitement law numbered 2634, Antalya metropolitan municipality yacht marina’s operation regulation, the metropolitan municipality law numbered 5216 and legislation related with the other municipality incomes. There are already 46 each yachts in our yacht marina with a yearly tying contract. In addition in year 2004, 125 foreign and 130 Turkish flagged yachts are accommodated in the marina.

 

ANTALYA OLD TOWN , HISTORY, ART

Old town is located in a place known as Kaleici. Kaleici containes ruins dating back thousands of years temples, churches, basilicas,

 

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715 houses and 47 monuments from the time of Selcuk and Ottoman dwellings. Most of these having been restored, they serve tourism. As a result of the efforts made, the Golden Apple, recognised as the Tourism Oscar, was awarded to Antalya Kaleiçi in 1984. The foremost work of art dating from the Roman era in the region is Hadrian’s Gate, built in 139 A.D. in commemoration of the Emperor Hadrian’s visit to the city. Also known as Üç Kapilar, this two-tier monumental gate has three arches and 8 columns with Corinthian capitals set upon pedestals at the façade and rear. There are square watch towers on either side of the gate. On the western falez rock end of the Antalya Park, the 14-metre high, two-tier Hidirlik Tower is visible. Dating from the Roman era, it is thought to have been used as a lighthouse. The tower, with a square base and the upper part built of rounded carved stone blocks, and remains of frescoes visible on its inner walls, was later used as a basilica. The Panagia Basilica, built by the Byzantines, to the east of the Hidirlik Tower, was transformed into a mosque upon the addition of a single-galleried minaret by the Turkish Sultan Korkut in 1467. The building consists of two sections in the shape of a double cross and is remarkable with its arched gate and reliefs on the door-window edges, and marble columns. The fire in 1896 ruined the mosque and its minaret collapsed halfway down. Therefore, it is today called Kesik Minare (The Truncated Minaret). The symbols of the city, Yivli Minare (The Grooved Minaret) and Ulu Cami Külliyesi, were built upon the remains of the Byzantine church by Sultan Alaaddin in 1230. The frame of the 45 metre high minaret, built of brick on a square stone pedestal, was erected with bracing in the form of 8 grooves, and the upper part is embellished with light blue square mosaic stones. The words God and Muhammed are inscribed on the floor surfaces with turquoise stones and tiles. The simply constructed Ulu Cami, standing adjacent to the minaret, has 6 domes covered with roof tiles, raised on 12 columns. Immediately next to the mosque stands Karatay Medresesi, which consists of small chambers.

 

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Besides technology, courses in science, philosophy and psychology were taught at the Medrese, which served as the college of its era. To the northwest of the Mosque is Mevlevihane. This 18th century square building is reinforced by cradle vaults and the dome is covered with roof tiles. To the east of Külliye is the Tomb of Mehmet Bey, an octagonal construction upon a square floor, walls of dressed stone blocks and a pyramid spire-shaped roof covered with roof tiles. To the west there is a Selçuklu Hamami (Seljuk Hamam) with walls built of rubble stones, a steam room with a square layout and a roof made of round domes. The Clock Tower, onto which a clock was placed at a later period, is situated at a site known as Castle Gate and is one of the watch towers built on either side of the gate in order to protect it. Of these 25 metre high towers, the one to the east, which is still standing, has a square layout. Murat Pasa Mosque which was built by Kuyucu Murat Pasa in 1570 is covered with a high dome upon a ten-corner frame, with the inscriptions on its inner walls running all through the internal façade in a ribbon while presenting the most beautiful example of the Turkish-Seljuk art of calligraphy. The altar next to the marble pulpit worked with reliefs is a simple construction. The last congregation place is covered with three domes rising above pointed arches of coloured stone on four round columns. In the city centre the Sinan Mosque ordered to be built by Sheikh Sinan during the 16th century with rubble stone was built single-galleried with the short minaret made of dressed stone. The Mosque has a wooden floor and is covered with a tiled roof. Sheikh Sinans tomb is situated opposite the mosque. Tekeli Mehmet Pasa Mosque, located behind the Clock Tower at Kalekapisi (Castle Gate), dates back to the 16th century. The sides of the entrance gate located to the north and the window edges are made of dressed stone. There is one large and three small domes over the mosque, which has a rectangular layout. Balibey Mosque on Balibey street in the city centre was ordered to be constructed by the Cavalry Chief Malkocoglu Balibey during the 15th century. Mtüsellim Mosque, which was ordered to be built by Mehmet Aga, the Head of the Palace Doorkeepers, in 1769 is made of dressed stone. At the northwest corner it has a single-galleried minaret made of brick. The mosque is covered by a large dome on drum frames in three stages, with 4, 8 and 10 corners. Ahi Yusuf Mosque, which was built by Ahi Yusuf in 1249, has a square foundation and is made of rubble stone. This little masjid is covered by a round dome with roof tiles. To the east of the city centre are Demirci Karaali Mosque, which was built during the 18th century, and KirCami, which was re-constructed with the addition of a minaret.

ANTALYA ARCHEOLOGICAL MUSEUM

This is the second largest museum in Turkey, covering an area of 7000 m2. The museum was awarded the ?European Council Special Prize? as a result of its activities in 1988. It has 13 exhibition halls and an open-air gallery. There are about 5000 artefacts on display. Antalya Museum is the only museum in Turkey with a section devoted to children.

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In the first hall of the museum, antiquities showing homework and mathematical calculations made on clay tablets by children are displayed. In the Natural History and Prehistory Hall there are fossil and mineral samples relating to the development and living creatures of the geological era. These are pine cone fossils, sea urchins and brachiopod fossils. Also on display here are hand axes, arrowheads, cutting stones, bone tools, wedges and various instruments found at Karain and Beldibi caves in the Antalya region dating from the Prehistoric, Paleolithic, Neolithic and Calcolithic eras. In the section to the west of the hall, the antiquities and cubic and brick tomb samples found during the excavations at Elmal? Semahöyük and Karata? are displayed. Various types of baked earthenware vessels, seals, brush stems and dead skeletons discovered in these tombs are displayed within the original Cubic tomb in Hucker form, that is, in the position of an unborn baby. In the Gallery of Gods section there are various forms of black varnished figureless vessels, bellcraters depicting the battle between the amazons and the griffons, lekythoi and black and red vases discovered in Aspendos, which are decorated with three young figures dancing and holding a red vase, displayed in the showcases. In the hall where sculptures of gods are on display, there are the sculptures of Zeus, father of gods, Artemis considered as the guardian of Perge and successor of the main goddess, Leto, Fortuna, Goddess of Luck, Nemesis, Goddess of Fate, Aphrodite, Demeter, Goddess of Earth and Fertility, Serapis, Underground God, Isis, Goddess Controlling the Elements, and Hermes, guardian god of thieves-merchants. In the hall containing Small and Underwater Artefacts, the first piece was found in Foça which is a bronze statue of Herakles, the symbol of power and strength, resting on his sceptre on a bull?s head.

ANTALYA DUDEN WATERFALLS

These are located 12 km from the city centre. The waterfalls, formed by a karstic depression, are 20 metres high and also spring from underground at the point where the water falls.

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By entering into Dilek Ma?aras? (Cave of Wishes) located underneath the waterfalls it is also possible to pass to the rear side of the water. The location of the waterfalls has the appearance of a botanical heaven thanks to the rich variety of plants. In the deep valley formed by the falling and flowing water of the waterfalls there are promenades and trout restaurants. The rock tombs observed around the valley bring to mind that the area was a sacred place in ancient times. After 8km the water from the falls forms a small creek, creating a magnificent spectacle as it cascades over the 40 metre high falez rock into the sea in the Lara region. There are restaurants and picnic areas on the falez rock with a view of the sea and waterfalls. Touristic boat tours are organised to the waterfalls from the Marina.

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